Chapter 1. Introduction

We can define Internet of Things (IoT) is as “ A system of interconnected computing devices, mechanical and digital machines,aobjects, animals or people that are provided with unique identities and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computerainteraction” [1].
IoT supports physical things to hear, see, think and execute tasks by allowing them “talk” to each other, to synchronize decisions, and to share information. Things or Objects with communicationacapabilities and embeddedaintelligence are known as Smart Devices. Smart phones, health care gadgets, sensors, cars, RFID tags etc. are examples of such devices. In Internetacommunication occurs between users, whereas in IoT communication occursabetween smart devices without human interface or with human interface.
The IoT smart objects areaexpected toareach 212 billion objects installed worldwide by the” end of 2020. By 2022, Machine to Machine traffic flows are expected to establish up to 45%of the whole Internet traffic. McKinsey”Global Institute stated that the number of connected objects (units) has grown 300% over the last 5 years. Traffic monitoring of a cellular network in the U.S. also showed an increase of 250% for M2M traffic” volume in 2011[2].”
The IoT is capable of interconnecting heterogeneous objects in a large number over the Internet, so we need a censorious for a flexible layered architecture.
ISO/IEC CD 30141 standard defind the Reference Architecture for IoT. Fig 1 shows the relation between entity and domain based reference Model. IoT-Users belong to user domain. Application service systems, operation & management systems and resource & interchange systems work in application service domain, operation & management domain and application service domain, respectively. IoT devices and IoT gateway are entities in sensing and controlling domain. Physical entity exists in physical entity domain.
Fig 1
Fig 2, IoT RA system view is shown together with all the entities involved in each domain and the connections between them. The entities in each domain are very general and optional, depending on specific applications. There are four different kinds of networks to connect the physical components in the six domains of an IoT system: proximity network, access network, services network, and user network.
Fig 2
Application fo IoT
Application of IoT
1. Islam, S.M.R.; Kwak, D.; Kabir,M.H.; Hossain, M. and Kwak, S.K.;"The Internet of Things for Health Care: A Comprehensive Survey," in IEEE Access, vol. 3, no. , pp. 678-708, 2015.
2. Fuqaha, A.; Guizani, A.; Mohammadi, M.; Aledhari, M. and Ayyash, M. "Internet of Things: A Survey on Enabling Technologies, Protocols, and Applications," in IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 2347-2376, Fourthquarter 2015.
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